(For what follows, I'm using "raw" patterns etc - you may need to add whatever is needed to make the characters be passed through to the regex engine correctly.)
For a start, I would replace the '([(])' with '\('. There is no need to create a complete character set definition within the regex just to match against a single character. Also, as you are not using anything that is captured as part of the matching process, then I would also drop the surrounding parentheses. That would match the matching patterns
Without being told what "rVars[key]" could possibly be expanded to, it is hard to say what other improvements could be made.
However, when anyone starts talking about speeding up a regex match (or replacement), the first question is "how much of a problem is this really?". For example, if it takes 1 second and is repeated every hour, then is is really not worth spending much time on. However if it takes 1 second and is repeated every second, then it IS worth the effort.
The next part is to examine exactly what is the slowest part of the process? You are doing 3 regex replacements as far as I can see within each iteration of the outer loop. The first 2 would appear to be modifying a regex pattern that is then used for (one of the) 3rd replacement operation. Which is actually causing the problem.
If the "rVars" values are not changing, is it possible to do the replacements within these strings outside the loop so they get done once and are then used whenever the main part gets called?
Also, it looks like you are scanning some piece of text ("data" ?) once for each of the "rVars" patterns (guessing here). It may be easier to scan the document once (or as few times as possible) with a combined pattern (and possibly more complex replacement string) - benchmarking may be needed once you know where the bottlenecks are.
I would suggest that you give us some of the text that you are scanning and some examples of the patterns you are using and their corresponding replacement strings - it could also be that you are doing something with the patterns themselves (which we can't see) that is bordering on one of the pathological problem cases.